Mapping Opportunity: Educational Opportunities and Residential Location

Originally posted on VA Housing and Education:

Heather Mullins Crislip, President and CEO, Housing Opportunities Made Equal of Virginia

Brian Koziol, Research Director, Housing Opportunities Made Equal of Virginia

This post is adapted from Where You Live Makes All The Difference: Opportunity Mapping in the Richmond Region a report by Housing Opportunities Made Equal of Virginia (HOME), which can be found in full at http://phonehome.org/PolicyResearch/Research.aspx

Housing and education are inextricably linked. Quality schools have a strong influence on housing values.  Therefore, higher performing school districts are often unaffordable for low-to-moderate income households.[i]

 

Moreover, access to a quality education is an essential ingredient to ensure future opportunity.  Receiving a quality education increases the ability of an individual to secure adequate employment and stay financially stable enough to generate intergenerational wealth.

Educational Opportunities and Residential Location

As one study found, children from public housing living and attending schools in a middle class neighborhood, showed measurable improvement in…

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“The killing of Michael Brown is a problem we all share.”

I work for a civil rights organization; an old, established one with a formidable reputation.  I do research for them; I get paid to make sense of the inequalities that exist in our country.  I am a middle class, well-educated white male and constantly struggle with the fact that I’m in a very privileged position to be able to do what I do for a living.  The killing of Michael Brown has affected me tremendously, in ways that I have yet to even fully comprehend.  Maybe it has to do with the idea that I like to think that what I do makes a difference and that fighting the good fight matters; I guess it does on some level.  The fact remains that there are stark inequalities between races in this country.  These disparities aren’t some sort of modern day Darwinism played out within the confines of our society – they have been purposefully designed and implemented to move the advantaged further ahead at the expense of the disadvantaged.  We don’t, by any stretch of the imagination live in a “post-racial” world; race has almost everything to do with, well pretty much everything.

Understanding and more importantly accepting the fact that public policy over the past (at least) 100 years has purposefully oppressed people based on skin color is the first step to understanding why the killing of Michael Brown is a problem we all share.  Inequality abounds in the natural world; faster or more alert or more naturally cautious little fish grow up to be bigger fish; sluggish, less alert or less cautious fish become dinner.  Fish however, at least as far as I know, aren’t prone to public policy that dictates whether they become dinner or get to grow up.  Humans are a different case; we impose rules, regulations and public policy rooted in the retention of power rather than the expansion of equity and morality.

I’m not an expert on constitutional law, sociology, law enforcement, or race relations. I am an expert in civil rights research and data analysis.  I have conducted exhaustive research on the impacts of public policies on our urban areas, from the discriminatory practices of the Home Owners Loan Corporation which dictated where private home loans would be insured by the Federal government, to the impacts Brown V. Board of Education had on the fabric of our society.  In Richmond as in many other cities across the Country, bus lines don’t extend into job-rich suburban counties, educational infrastructure is crumbling, public housing policies ensure that poverty is deeply concentrated, disparities across the board are rising. The mortgage lending debacle that lend to the collapse of the economy was centered in the communities most unable to weather the storm.  In Richmond, those neighborhoods with the highest rates of African American homeownership also experienced the highest rates of foreclosure.

Much of the work I do leaves me enraged.  It should enrage you too.  I believe that every life matters.  I believe that all people want a better life.  I believe that the inequalities in our society are no longer sustainable.  Part of me would like to see the outrage in Ferguson increase and spread to every city across the country.  However, the sensible side understands that the system we have all had a hand in creating can be changed.  It took hundreds of years of purposeful intent to get to where we are; it will take as many years to make things right.

Most of you are not engaged in the type of work that I am. Most of you do not spend time thinking about the tangible as well as intangible privileges you have or haven’t received due to your skin color. Frankly, it doesn’t matter.  I believe we all have the ability to change our system and this is my challenge to you: take a deep, hard look at your personal biases, try to understand from where they came and change them.  Until we, as a collective society, are able to see people as they truly are we will continue to prevent valuable lives from reaching their full potential and that, my friends, is an unfathomable travesty.

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Brian Koziol is Director of Research at Housing Opportunities Made Equal.

Letter to the Editor Concerning the Prevention of Saint Paul’s College from Providing Refuge

The following letter to the editor was published in the Richmond Times Dispatch on June 29, 2014.

The recent decisions to prevent the private Saint Paul’s College from providing refuge to 500 unaccompanied immigrant children at their vacant campus, as well as the general angst about immigration in our region is very concerning.  Immigration and providing refuge those escaping violence and hardship is a hallmark American value for which we should all be proud.  Immigration generally is important to our culture, economy, and moral foundation.

It is important that new arrivals have housing choice.  The Fair Housing Act of 1968 acknowledges this. The Fair Housing Act (FHA), 42 U.S.C. 3601 et seq.,  prohibits discrimination by housing providers, including municipalities, whose discriminatory practices make housing unavailable to persons on account of race or color, religion, sex, national origin, familial status, or disability.

Every person in the United States is protected by the Fair Housing Act regardless of their immigration status.   This is well established law.  In past years, the U.S. Justice Department has taken enforcement action against municipalities that have attempted to reduce or limit the number of Hispanic families that live in their communities.

Statements reported in recent news media made by some Brunswick officials such as, “There is this negative perception of gang violence – these people are coming from Central America”[1] indicate that officials may be attempting to deny these children access to housing on account of their nationality.  Municipalities such as Brunswick County have an additional duty to “affirmatively further fair housing” by virtue of their receipt of federal Community Development Block Grant funding.  We believe that making housing unavailable based on national origin may violate this obligation.

Housing Opportunities Made Equal of Virginia, Inc. (HOME) is the only statewide fair housing organization in Virginia.  HOME’s mission is to ensure equal access to housing for all people.  HOME works to tackle systemically divisive housing practices on a larger scale through fair housing enforcement and research, advocacy, and statewide policy work.   We encourage municipalities and housing providers to reflect on the Fair Housing Act, and its requirements that prohibit making housing opportunities unavailable based on national origin.  We welcome further discussion.

Heather Mullins Crislip
President and CEO
Housing Opportunities Made Equal of Virginia (HOME)

A New Way to Open Doors to Opportunity

The neighborhood you live in and the school you attend have repercussions into every area of your life. We call neighborhoods with access to amenities such as jobs, transportation, good schools, grocery stores and retail shops “Neighborhoods of Opportunity.” These neighborhoods tend to be more ethnically and economically diverse and have lower rates of poverty and crime. We believe everyone has a right to live in Neighborhoods of Opportunity, because where you live makes such a huge difference in your life. Studies show that children who live in high-poverty neighborhoods and attend school with predominantly low-income classmates make less money over their lifetime and suffer an increase risk of health problems such as diabetes or heart disease.[i]

For very low income families, a Housing Choice Voucher (HCV) is a means of moving out of their current low-opportunity neighborhood into a neighborhood of opportunity. Qualified families must make 50% or less of the area median income. In Richmond this means that a family of four must make $26,450 or less annually.[ii] An HCV ensures that a family doesn’t have to spend more than 30% of their income on housing. This enables them to spend money on other needs, such as food and health care. Without the HCV, they might not have enough money to eat or go to the doctor when they are sick. They might even end up homeless if their living costs become unmanageable.

A Housing Choice Voucher does not solve all of a family’s problems, though. It is not a magic wand or a cure-all pill. There are still many hurdles to cross on the path to an opportunity neighborhood. First, these families are often denied housing by landlords who can legally choose not to rent to HCV holders. An ad like the one below is all too common on sites like Craigslist where thousands of housing transactions begin every day.

no section 8 craigslist

Even when families with an HCV are not flatly denied housing, moving to a new neighborhood is a difficult and stressful process. This is true even for families with lots of resources at their disposal. For all families there are many factors to consider when moving, affordability is just one. Other factors we all consider are: how close you’ll be to your job; will you need to get a new job; which school will your children attend; what sort of transportation is available to you; will you get along with your neighbors and your landlord? For families with an HCV, the answers to these common questions might be very complicated and require more time, energy and resources to solve than they have available. So many families remain in their current neighborhoods where they continue to be in danger due to high crime rates, increased exposure to environmental toxins, lack of access to fresh and healthy food, a dearth of good jobs and sound educational opportunities.

The Move To Opportunity program is administered by Housing Opportunities Made Equal (HOME) with funds from the Virginia Department of Housing and Community Development. This program is designed to connect qualified HCV holders with the resources they need to make the move to an opportunity neighborhood. HOME staff will work closely with the families to identify the unique barriers they might face when deciding to move and then will connect them with the tools they need to make the move. A landlord liaison will work with landlords and property managers who are interested in partnering with HOME and the local housing authority to provide housing for HCV holders in opportunity neighborhoods. Each unit will go through a quality inspection to ensure that families are moving into housing that will keep them safe as well as give them access to opportunities. A landlord liaison will also ensure that the relationship between the landlord, HOME, the local housing authority, and the tenant goes smoothly.

Our hope is that this program will enable families to make a move that will forever change their lives and the lives of the next generation. Children who attend schools in opportunity neighborhoods have a higher earning potential over their lifetime.[iii] Girls whose families have participated in similar programs across the country experience improvements in mental and physical health.[iv] Additionally, this program is a step towards ensuring equal access to housing for a group that is at risk for housing discrimination but as yet receives little protection.

 

[i] http://www.nccp.org/topics/childpoverty.html

[ii] For more information on area median income and HCV eligibility visit http://portal.hud.gov/hudportal/HUD?src=/program_offices/public_indian_housing/programs/hcv/about/fact_sheet

[iii] http://www.racialequitytools.org/resourcefiles/spencer.pdf

[iv] http://www.nber.org/mtopublic/MTO%20Overview%20Summary.pdf

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Morgan Barker is serving with AmeriCorps VISTA at HOME. She is a Richmond native with a passion for social justice.

The Monster in the Closet

Recently, the news has been consumed by coverage of Donald Sterling’s racist comments caught on tape and the NBA’s swift and decisive condemnation. This seems to denote a turning point in race relations in the United States. We’re tempted to declare that the Civil Rights Movement has been a success, open racism is no longer acceptable, we’ve won! And it’s true, overt racism is frowned upon today and few proudly proclaim their racist ideals anymore. Even the Ku Klux Klan no longer claims to be an “enemy” to minorities (but they aren’t particularly friendly, either).[i] Yet, in 2003 when Donald Sterling was accused of housing discrimination against current and prospective tenants in his apartment complexes, nobody batted an eye. This accusation has only resurfaced to be used as one more piece of evidence to prove that his recorded remarks were made with racist intent. To me, this proves that open expressions of racism and being perceived by the public as a racist are undesirable in America, but policies and practices with racist effects, as long as they are hard to see, are somehow acceptable. America is not post-racial, our country continues to rest upon invisible and systemic racism, but we make ourselves feel better about it by condemning those who make their racism known.

Possibly the best thing to come out of this Sterling controversy is a great article at CNN from Rinku Sen, the publisher at Colorlines.com and executive director of Race Forward: The Center for Racial Justice Innovation. In the article, Sen identifies three things that need to be done in order to achieve racial equity: “talk explicitly about race; focus on the impact of policies and practices and the intention behind them; and support power-building in marginalized communities.”[ii] So far, none of these things are happening on a regular or highly effective basis at the national level. They are, however, happening at the local and regional level, and with much success. Sen goes on to detail a few instances in which groups have explicitly looked at the racial impact of policies and practices, which might on the surface seem benign, and made changes which had positive impacts for racial equality.

I’d like to continue what Sen started with a discussion of HOME and the ways we try to combat racism using Sen’s framework. HOME has been engaged in ensuring equal access to housing for all people since 1971. We’ve always had a focus on combating racism, as this is one of the biggest barriers to fair housing. We work both at the individual and the systemic level and the examples I’m about to give have to do with both internal efforts amongst staff as well as our external programs.

  1. Talk explicitly about race: In February of this year, HOME had an intentional staff-wide discussion of racism and white privilege. We spoke about the ways we as individuals and as an organization experience and confront racism in our daily lives and work. We challenged each other to use white privilege, if we have it, to confront and disrupt racism when we see it. Additionally, we decided that as an organization we need to do a better job of not only confronting racism but being real about the ways it influences us as an organization both internally and externally. As a result of this discussion, we’ve begun to set aside intentional times to engage openly and honestly with one another about racism and inequality once a week during what we call “Brown Bag Lunches.” Racism informs our work, in fact, it drives much of it. We have committed to the ongoing process of talking intentionally and explicitly about racism and inequality so that we can clearly name it and interrupt it when we see it.
  1. Focus on the impact of policies and practices and the intention behind them: As an organization with a specific emphasis on research and advocacy, HOME regularly engages in identifying and investigating the racial impact of state and local policies as well as policies of private companies. Our interest is in the ways these policies and practices impact access to housing and the credit to obtain housing. We regularly investigate the policies and practices of private and public entities within the housing industry and conduct independent research such as our recent project, “Mapping RVA: Where You Live Makes All the Difference.” These research endeavors are then used to change the practices and policies of the participants and serve as valuable educational tools for others who are interested in making better policies for the future.
  1. Support power-building in marginalized communities: Finally, we empower low-to-moderate income families in the Richmond Metro Region to take advantage of the opportunity to build wealth by purchasing their first home. 84% of these families are minorities. None of them could have purchased a home when they did without the support of HOME’s program for first-time homebuyers. Owning a home is one of the best ways to provide not only economic but social stability for a family and the larger community. A low rate of homeownership among minority groups in the U.S. is one of the biggest contributing factors to the wealth gap between whites and minorities. By providing low-to-moderate income families with the opportunity to become homeowners, HOME strengthens minority communities and enables these families to achieve more than they ever dreamed possible.

America is not post racial. Racism permeates every facet of society because our society has not learned to confront or even effectively talk about racism and the ways it works in our world. This stops us from reaching our highest potential as a nation.

Yes, it is something to be excited about that someone with as much power as Donald Sterling can lose it all with an ill-timed racist remark, but invisible, systemic racism abounds in our society and we are letting it happen. Rinku Sen and I have given you a few examples of ways people are working to eliminate this proverbial monster in the closet, but it can’t be completed without a visible and systemic effort at the individual, local, regional, state and national levels. We have to condemn the covert as well as the overt acts of racism. All the anger and indignation over Donald Sterling will mean nothing if people are still denied full membership in society simply because of who they are.

 

 

 

[i] http://www.timesdispatch.com/news/local/chesterfield/chesterfield-residents-receive-kkk-fliers/article_ed60e60e-78ec-55f4-a6ef-0d579292069f.html

[ii] http://www.cnn.com/2014/05/07/living/race-sterling-identity/

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Morgan Barker is serving with AmeriCorps VISTA at HOME. She is a Richmond native with a passion for social justice.

Happy Fair Housing Month!

April has been designated Fair Housing Month as a way of honoring and celebrating the Fair Housing Act and the many people who dedicated their passion to bringing it into law. Most notably, Martin Luther King, Jr. was a champion of Fair Housing. At the urging of President Lyndon Johnson, the Act was passed in MLK’s honor days after his assassination in 1968. The Fair Housing Act is no less significant today than it was when it was passed in ’68.

This is a law that required not only high level paradigm shifts but also rests heavily on individuals to not only make choices to comply with the law, but to make strong choices when confronted with injustice. Fair Housing claims cannot be brought without the participation of wronged individuals but most importantly without volunteers who assist in collecting evidence. Fair Housing has always relied on grassroots initiatives holding institutions accountable.

The Chicago Freedom Movement was an alliance of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) and the Coordinating Council of Community Organizations led by Martin Luther King, Jr. to protest the segregation of the city as enforced by Chicago realtors who were steering African American clients into certain parts of the city. In Richmond, too, grassroots organizations of community activists were what really started the ball rolling towards neighborhood integration. One such organization was the Carillon Civic Association which formed to protest and counter discriminatory practices by real estate agents in their neighborhood. By 1971, they were successful in ending discriminatory advertising for houses in their neighborhood. Members of the Carillon Civic Association were also influential in HOME’s early years.

Their legacy continues today as HOME relies heavily on the support of individuals in the community who bring our attention to instances of discrimination or volunteer their time to help us uncover and document discrimination. Now that the Fair Housing Act exists, it is up to all of us to ensure that its promise holds true for all of us. This requires us to be diligent in our observations of housing transactions, advertisements, and market trends. We cannot do this work without grassroots support and energy to be our “eyes and ears.”

The Fair Housing Act has an intimate affect on our lives. It has a direct effect on where we are able to live and who is able to live near us. Not only is each one of us protected but each one of us has the responsibility to ensure that our neighborhoods are open and welcoming to all.

We can all be fair housing heroes.

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Morgan Barker is serving with AmeriCorps VISTA at HOME. She is a Richmond native with a passion for social justice.

Housing Choice Vouchers- Protecting a Path out of Poverty

Nationwide, 2.2 million households use Housing Choice Vouchers (HCV). (These are formally referred to as “Section 8 Vouchers” since it is provided for under Section 8 of the Federal Housing Act.)[i]  These vouchers allow very low income households to choose their housing while their rent is paid in full or in part by grants from the US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). The problem is that housing providers can choose not to rent to families using the vouchers simply because they do not want to be paid with them. This is called discrimination based on source of income.

Twelve states have passed legislation that protects against discrimination based on source of income. Virginia is not one of these states.

According to a 2011 HUD-funded evaluation, the implementation of laws that protect source of income improved voucher utilization rates and supported families’ ability to move to better neighborhoods. In 2010 the utilization rate for HCV’s was 89% and most families using the vouchers lived in areas where 10-50 percent of residents live below the poverty line. If lawful source of income was protected, we expect that the utilization rates of the vouchers would increase and that more families would move to low-poverty neighborhoods. Families that move to low-poverty neighborhoods using the HCV program experience significant benefits. Adults who move to areas with less than 10 percent poverty rates have lower incidences of obesity and diabetes and improved mental health. Female adolescents in families that move to low-poverty neighborhoods using the vouchers also experience significant improvements in mental health and educational outcomes. [ii]

Adding this protection to the Virginia Fair Housing Act would be a boon for HCV holders and could greatly improve the lives of many adults and children. Families with lawful sources of income are vulnerable and need as much support and protection as possible. Protecting a lawful source of income is a simple way to clear the path out of poverty for many families.


[i] United States Government Accountability Office (GAO), “Housing Choice Vouchers: Options Exist to Increase Program Efficiencies,” (Washington: U.S. GAO, March 2012).

[ii] Sanbonmatsu, L., et. al., “Moving to Opportunity Final Evaluation- Executive Summary” (October 2011).